(Chapter VIII, section 6)

Racial Classification within the White Family

We have reviewed some of the characters upon which race, in the sense of sub-divisions of the so-called white branch of living humanity, may be classified. It has become apparent from this review, as from the earlier chapters, that the "white" racial family is a composite amalgamation of peoples thrown together by accident of geography, blended into some semblance of homogeneity in major diagnostic features, and altered by environmental and cultural circumstances and by migration. Before attempting to propose a classification of living whites, however, it may be wise to pass in brief review the more important or more influential theories by which race has been classified in the past. The history of racial classification is a subject for a book in itself, and here we propose to limit our discussion to its minimum.

It is impossible to say when man began to classify himself into races. Knowledge of racial differences must, however, be as old as these differences, and must from the beginning have been a factor in their development. The Egyptians were well aware of the racial problem, and took pains, in their art, to differentiate between the various kinds of men that they knew. The Greeks likewise made classifications; both Hippocrates and Aristotle were strong environmentalists, as were the mediaeval Arab geographers who followed the classical tradition. Since these ancients and mediaevals wrote before the discovery of the bell-shaped curve (normal probability curve), probable error, correlation, or of the cephalic index, their system of classification was both observational and intuitive, and operated by the mechanism of generalization. Despite the work of the biometricians, and the mechanization of physical anthropology during the last half century, all important or influential systems of classification yet devised still operate on the same principle.

Aside from the ancients and their mediaeval followers, the modern period in physical anthropology begins with Blumenbach, whose system is still employed by most grade school geographers. Blumenbach, some one hundred and fifty years ago, divided mankind into the familiar white, black, brown, yellow, and red races, basing his primary classification upon skin color, although he considered other characters as well. In breadth of popular acceptance, his is still, in its simplest form, the most influential classification. During the first half of the nineteenth century, the world of science as well as the public was inclined to accept Blumenbach's divisions without too much protest, but in the period from 1860 to 1890, Europe was rife with attempts to classify mankind into orderly systems.32

In 1878 Topinard proposed a classification based not on skin color, but on hair form.33 Haeckel34 and Müller35 proposed the same diagnostic one year later. Topinard did not, however, rely on one character alone, but included skin color and nose form as subsidiary diagnostics. During this general period of activity systems were proposed by such varied authorities as Huxley, Geoffrey de St. Hilaire, and de Quatrefages;36 it was the last named, who, during the war of 1870, first prostituted the materials of physical anthropology for the purposes of nationalistic propaganda. The gauntlet flung down by de Quatrefages, who called the Germans "Huns," was seized by his enemy and converted into the more effective weapon of Nordicism. It remained for another Frenchman, however, to coin the word "Nordic." This was Deniker,37 who has had a greater influence upon the subsequent classification of race than any of his nineteenth century contemporaries, and who still remains the most important classifier. In view of the lack of scientific method available at his time - his classification, later modified slightly, was first published in 1889 - his intuitive genius and his grasp of patent situations were extraordinary. Born in Russia and educated in St. Petersburg as an engineer, he had travelled widely throughout eastern Europe and the Caucasus before he settled in Paris in 1876, at the age of twenty-four, to begin his career as an anthropologist.

The first step in Deniker's system was to divide mankind on the basis of a combination of hair form, hair and eye color, and nose form, with hair form as the principal diagnostic. He made six primary divisions, as shown on page 281.

A. Woolly Hair, Broad Nose.
B. Curly or Wavy Hair.
C. Wavy Brown or Black Hair, Dark Eyes.
D. Fair, Wavy or Straight Hair, Light Eyes.
E. Straight or Wavy Hair, Dark, Black Eyes.
F. Straight Hair.

Within these primary divisions he based his further classification upon combinations of skin color, nose form, stature, cephalic index, pilous development, browridges, and other characters. By this means he properly separated the Bushman into a separate class of group A; the Australian as well as the Dravidian went into group B, and were thus separated from a major "black race." Within the straight-haired class the Lapps, Mongoloids, and American Indians were arranged into what seemed then a reasonable order.

The white group, with which alone we are concerned, falls almost entirely into his C and D categories, with one segment in B. The table on page 282 gives this section of his classification in full.38

In that table, Deniker lists a number of races found both in Europe and outside that continent, of which eleven, not counting the Ainu, might be classified as basically white. His #5, the Ethiopian, is the Hamitic race of East Africa, with or without a slight negroid incremeflt; his #9, the Indo-Afghan, is the hook-nosed type of Mediterranean which we have found to extend from Mesopotamia to India across the highland belt, from at least the third millennium B.C. onward; his #8 is Armenoid. The inclusion of the Ethiopian and Assyrioid with Australians and Dravidians rather than with whites, while inexact, points, in the first case, to the negroid admixture of modern Ethiopians, and in the second, to a realization of the affinities of Australoids and Veddoids to the white group as a whole.

Besides these three, in effect, Hamitic, Armenoid, and Irano-Afghan, he finds two other white races outside the continent of Europe proper: these are his Arab and Berber. Thus we find a total of five morphologically white races in Asia and Africa; four of these are actually sub-divisions of the cranially unaltered basic Mediterranean stock.

In Europe itself he finds six races; the Littoral European, also called Atlanto-Mediterranean, is the tall Mediterranean associated in antiquity with Megalithic cultures, and may be related basically to Deniker's Ethiopian. His Ibero-Insular is the short Mediterranean race of Spain and the western islands, and corresponds to the Neolithic Mediterranean type in these regions. Deniker distinguished, therefore, between certain

[Deniker's System]

of the basic sub-varieties of the Mediterranean family, and except for the categories Arab and Berber, this distinction is on the whole accurate. He was aware of the differences between the three most important surviving divisions; (a) Short Mediterranean, (b) Tall, Megalithic, and East African variety, and (c) Hook-nosed, Indo-Afghan or Irano-Afghan variety.

At the same time, he was aware of the distinction between the Alpines and Dinarics, both in form and in geographical distribution. In his placing of the blonds into a separate category, he was following a taxonomic system rather than an estimate of relationships. His Nordics are accurately defined on the basis of living peoples; they are given a cephalic index of 77 to 79, instead of a non-existent lower mean; and they are segregated from the blond brachycephals of central and eastern Europe.

In order to accommodate other racial elements not fully covered by these classes, Deniker devised certain sub-races: (1) The Northwestern sub-race, a division of the Atlanto-Mediterranean, to accommodate especially the dark-haired western Irish. (2) A Sub-Nordic, which differs from the Nordic in the possession of mesocephaly, a square face, and a turned-up nose; this was devised to accommodate peoples living to the east of the Baltic and in northern Germany. (3) The Vistulan race is a branch of the eastern European or Oriental. The Oriental is described as short statured (163-464 cm.); moderately brachycephalic (C.I. = 82-83); and possessing light yellow or flaxen hair, a square cut face, a nose which is frequently turned up, and blue or gray eyes. This race is associated with the eastern Slavs and Finns for the most part, while the Vistulan is a variety of the same race with shorter stature and mesocephaly. The last of Deniker's secondary races is the Sub-Adriatic, described as a slightly shorter, slightly less brachycephalic and blonder variety of Dinaric, with a stature of 166 cm., a C. I. of 82-85; and derived from a blend of Dinaric with Sub-Nordic.

Two other authorities of what might be called the prestatistical school deserve mention at this point - Sergi and Ripley. Sergi,39 whose main interest was the Mediterranean race, based his classification primarily upon the circumferential profile of the head when seen from above, and worked more with crania than with the living. His chief contribution was the realization of the basic unity of the Mediterranean race, in both its blond and brunet forms, and its connection with the bearers of European civilization. Thus he anticipated the findings of the archaeologists that the Neolithic economy was brought into the western world by Mediterraneans.

He also made it clear that the so-called Brown Race, in its dolichocephalic and leptorrhine or mesorrhine forms, was for the most part an extension of the same Mediterranean family into southern Asia. He divided whites into Eurafricans, which is another word for basic Mediterraneans, and Eurasiatics, under which he included all brachycephals of white affinity. Sergi anticipated the discovery not only of the unity and cultural importance of the Mediterraneans, but also the dual origin of the white race.

If the schoolchildren and the unerudite public at large still follow Blumenbach, and the anthropologists themselves devise classification-schemes based upon Deniker, the large intermediate group of educated laymen rely almost entirely upon Ripley.40 Ripley, writing in 1899, was aware of Deniker's work, but rejected it. He considered that Deniker had made the picture much too complicated, and that there were but three white races, the Teutonic (Nordic), the Alpine, and the Mediterranean. The Nordic and Mediterranean were old European branches of an earlier white stock, while the Alpines were immigrants from Asia who had brought agriculture and the whole Neolithic economy with them The Alpines, besides introducing a new physical type, parted the Nordics from the Mediterraneans geographically, so that the two might develop separately, and that the Nordics in particular might derive their tall stature and blondism from environmental causes in isolation.

The above brief exposition has many advantages. It is simple, it is lucid, it is easily remembered. It fitted into the linguistic picture of Aryan culture bearers plodding across Europe from their simple home in the Hindu-Kush, developed by nineteenth century philologists, although Ripley himself was vehement in his rejection of linguistics as a proper approach to racial study. At the same time it explained the newly-found and well-preserved Neolithic remains of the Swiss lake dwellings.

With such a simple scheme, it was easy for Ripley's followers to tack psychological characters to the three-fold framework, and the "Nordic with a genius for leadership and government," "the stolid, unimaginative. plodding but virtuous Alpine," and the "gay, artistic, and sexy Mediterranean soon followed. Hilaire Belloc's famous verses, published originally in the New Statesman, satirize this attitude perfectly.

"Behold, my child, the Nordic man,
And be as like him as you can:
His legs are long - his mind is slow
His hair is lank and made of tow.

"And here we have the Alpine race.
Oh! what a broad and brutal face.
His skin is of a dirty yellow
He is a most unpleasant fellow.

"The mast degraded of them all
Mediterranean we call.
His hair is crisp and even curls
And he is saucy with the girls."

Ripley himself had little or nothing, in a direct sense, to do with this efflorescence of speculative psychology, for the attitude of differential racial values had been crystallized as early as Gobineau;41 but he did give the exponents of this school a facile terminology. Racial nationalism had been growing before Ripley's time; but he, for the first time, gave the laymen a racial classification which they could understand, and which could be converted into catchwords.

Like his predecessors, Ripley was discreet about the age of white men on European soil; only in the case of the Alpines was he willing to set a culturally stabilized date. In his day it was generally believed that the Neolithic went back to anywhere from eight to fourteen thousand B.C., and the Mesolithic period was not generally recognized. Furthermore the function of the glacier in regard to human habitat was but poorly comprehended. Ripley did, however, make one speculation about the survival of preglacial man in Europe; he postulated that some of the inhabitants of the Dordogne region in France might be Crô-Magnon descendants.

Some twenty years previously Verneau42 had remarked upon the resemblance between Guanche crania from the Canary Islands and these Crô-Magnon skulls, and had postulated a genetic relationship between the two peoples so separated in space and in time. In 1896 von Luschan and Meyer43 reaffirmed this relationship, and this endorsement prepared the way for a more accurate realization of the part played by survivors from the last glacial period in the modern peopling of Europe. It was soon realized that, if Upper Palaeolithic man could survive in the Canary Islands, he could persist elsewhere as well, and from this start arose the theory that the Crô-Magnon people had retreated northward with the glacier, and had survived in Scandinavia. Paudler,44 in his Die hellfarbigen Rassen, first put this thesis into digestible form, and distinguished between his "Dalo-Nordic" or "Fälish" (Günther), which is tall, long-headed, with a mesorrhine nose and short, broad face, and a "Teuto-Nordic" which is also tall and long headed, but has a long, narrow nose and face form. The first is considered to be the primary Crô-Magnon descendant.

From this thesis has arisen the idea, in conjunction with philology and archaeology, that the Germanic peoples, as descendants of Crô-Magnon, represent the racial and linguistic nucleus of the Indo-Europeans; that European Neolithic civilization and Indo-European speech both had their origin in northern Germany and Scandinavia; that the Corded people, a Nordic variety, originated and spread from here; and that in effect, the Nordic race, Indo-European speech, and European culture in its basic form, arose from Palaeolithic racial and cultural origins in this northwestern European glacial center. This theory, bolstered on the archaeological side by Kossinna,45 is popular in Germany, but is by no means endorsed by all German physical anthropologists.

The modern German school has made a great advance over Deniker and his contemporaries, and over Ripley, in the realization that an important element in the modern European racial conglomerate is of glacial antiquity in Europe. The difference between their conclusions and those of the present study lies mainly in my acceptance of Childe's derivation of the Neolithic economy, and Menghin's as well, rather than that of Kossinna. Von Eickstedt,46 the most articulate of the modern German raciologists, in his derivation of European peoples from Asia at various periods, does not emphasize the introduction of the food-producing economy in this connection.

It would be outside the scope of the present study to attempt a complete survey of current ideas and current classifications which concern the European races. A partial survey would, on the other hand, be unfair to those who might, through limitations of space, be neglected. I shall, therefore, limit my exposition to the systems of two authors,47 von Eickstedt and Czekanowski, who have been particularly occupied with the question of racial taxonomy and who are the most vocal members of the German and Polish bodies respectively. Their influence has been considerable, and their schemes are articulate and orderly.

Von Eickstedt, whose Rassenkunde und Rassengeschichte der Menschheit represents the most ambitious attempt at world-classification yet made, follows, in his European sections, three masters: Ripley, Deniker, and Montandon. It is the combination of these three, skilfully blended, which has produced his system. In the first place, he agrees with Ripley that there are but three basic races in Europe; Nordic, Alpine, and Mediterranean. These three are typically confined to three climatic and geographical zones; the cold northern plain, the central mountain belt, and the warm belt reaching along the Mediterranean shores, and over Arabia and Iran to India.

He differs from Ripley, however, in that he divides his three zones into sub-races, and here he follows, for the most part, Deniker. The northern zone is occupied, at its western extremity, by the Nordics; at its eastern by his Osteuropid race, the Orientale of Deniker, and the East Baltic of Nordenstreng and of authors writing in English.48 The central mountain belt is occupied, reading from west to east, by the Alpines, the Dinarics, and, in Asia, the Armenoids, and the Turanids, the latter being the leptorrhine brachycephalic central Asiatic Turkish racial form. The southern zone is occupied by the Mediterraneans on the west, then the Orientalids (Deniker's lndo-Afghan) in North Africa, and thence over to Khyber Pass, where the Indid race begins.

In the differentiation between the segments of each zone, Montandon' s ideas,49 elaborated from those of Rosa, come into play. Von Eickstedt, following the principles of the ologenesis theory, has decided that some races are progressive in the evolutionary sense, while others are primitive. The two words, here simply Anglicized from the German, are apparently translations of Montandon's precoce and tardif. The distinction is that one is capable of further evolution, the other is not. In the von Eickstedt sense, the primitive branch is usually earlier. Thus he makes the Alpines, in particular, primitive; the Dinarics, in contrast, are progressive forms of the same original root.

According to von Eickstedt, the races which come under his classification entered Europe in post-glacial times. First came the Mediterraneans, during the Mesolithic; then the Alpines, who approached the Swiss lake dwellings from the east, but still in Mesolithic times; the Dinarics go back only to the Bronze Age. The Alpines were a forest people, and spread out into the forests of northern Europe as well as of those which covered the mountains in the center. An extra-primitive proto-Alpine type went to Denmark to associate itself with the Maglemose culture. Then the Nordics broke through along the newly-formed northern steppes, and entered Scandinavia over Denmark, passing into Norway by two routes: around by Oslo; and through the gap between the two melting nuclei of the glacier, into Trondelagen. Earlier brachycephals are found at the termini of these routes.

According to his system the Lapps are Alpines isolated in the north; they are the purest Alpines of all and are not mongoloid. The Nordics are divided into three sub-divisions: Teuto-Nordic, the original and basic form; the Dalo-Nordic, which is the same plus Crô-Magnon mixture; and a Fenno-Nordic, reddish haired and water-blue eyed, which is the easternmost, largely Asiatic branch, now found only in solution. The Osteuropids are a separate race, a Nordic-Mongoloid transitional form, dating from the time of differentiation between these two stocks; and not a Nordic Mongoloid mixture, since its superior blondism and possession of distinctive traits make its mixed derivation impossible. This race developed in the swamps and forests of the Obi drainage, and entered Europe only in modern times; its penetration of eastern and central Europe is a recent phenomenon.

So much for von Eickstedt's classification. It fits with some fidelity the facts of racial distribution in Europe, but it does not fit all of the facts of history. In this respect we may apply the same criticism to the system of Czekanowski, which is illustrated by the diagram below:50

According to Czekanowski, there are four basic white races, located schematically at the corners of the square; and six sub-races or mixed types, which result from the crossing of the four fundamental ones. These races and sub-races, with their Greek letters, may be listed as follows:

This scheme is obviously an attempt to place Deniker's system in a mathematically orderly form. Czekanowski defines his Lapponoid in such a way as to include the Alpine of Ripley, as well as the Lapps proper. In this identification of Lapps and Alpines, Czekanowski and von Eickstedt agree. The Dinaric becomes a mixture of Lapponoid and Armenoid, which is difficult to follow; the "Pile Dwelling," being a mixture of Lapponoid and Mediterranean is, however, fully in accordance with the facts in regard to the crania of Swiss Lake Dwellers,51 concerning which Czekanowski is a specialized authority.52 It seems unfortunate that the word "Alpine," should be torn from its context, immortalized by Ripley, and applied to a hypothetical Nordic-Armenoid cross, thus further abetting the confusion prevalent among even professional anthropologists, a confusion which Günther, in his wholesale swapping of names, has done much to foster.53

It is not the purpose of the present survey to criticize in detail the two schemes chosen for presentation. Czekanowski, like Gunther, von Eickstedt, and others, has rescued the Armenoid, which was first carefully described by von Luschan,54 from the obscure companionship of Australians and Ethiopians in which Deniker had thrown it; he also, anticipating von Eickstedt and following the early example of Pruner Bey,55 has attempted to salvage the Lapps from a mongoloid category and to make them full-fledged if primitive Europeans. But his scheme is manifestly too pat, too regular, and too mathematical, to agree fully with nature, and, furthermore, it disagrees in many respects with the findings of the historical discipline.

In making our own classification, let us first review the system which grew out of the skeletal study in Chapters II to VII. The groundwork of this system, and the list of types, may be gathered from the study of the lower half of Fig. 30. In this chart an attempt is made to separate the purely sapiens Mediterranean group from the Upper Palaeolithic mixed sapiens and Neanderthal races. Thus the Mediterranean sub-groups, races of food-producers which had already become differentiated before the great migrations into Europe, are listed as follows: Irano-Afghan, Corded, Atlanto-Mediterranean, Cappadocian, Mediterranean Proper, and Danubian. The old hunting and fishing population is divided into:

Brünn, Borreby, and Alpine; while that branch which bears a considerable strain of incipient mongoloidism, includes Lappish and Ladogan, the latter being the vaguely mongoloid mixed meso- and brachycephalic element which appeared sporadically in the forest region of Russia, and occasionally to the south, from the beginning of the Russian Neolithic

[Schematic Representation of White Racial History]

onward. To this same side of the chart are added the modern mongoloids and the mongoloid clement in the American Indian.

The lower half of the chart seems relatively simple in comparison with the upper portion, in which an attempt is made to show the relationships between these skeletal races and the living. The comparative simplicity of the lower portion, however, may reflect ignorance on our part rather than actual genetic isolation, since there was undoubtedly much mixing back and forth between the branches of each of the major lines, as well as between the lines themselves.

The proposed classification of living whites and near-whites, which is shown on the top of the chart, may be listed in more detailed form as follows:


(1) Brünn: (Crô-Magnon, to some extent) found in solution with Borreby, Nordic, and other elements, mostly in Scandinavia and the British Isles, also in North Africa and Canary Islands. May appear in comparatively pure form among individuals although nowhere as a total population.

(2) Borreby: Large-headed brachycephals of Ofnet-Afalou type, the unreduced brachycephalic strain in Crô-Magnon; found in solution in peripheral regions of northwestern Europe, and as a major population element in most of northern and central Germany, and in Belgium. Like the Brünn race, with which it is often associated, it occurs also in North Africa and the Canary Islands.


(3) Alpine: A reduced and somewhat foetalized survivor of the Upper Palaeolithic population in Late Pleistocene France, highly brachycephalized; seems to represent in a large measure the bearer of the brachycephalic factor in Crô-Magnon. Close approximations to this type appear also in the Balkans and in the highlands of western and central Asia, suggesting that its ancestral prototype was widespread in Late Pleistocene times. In modern races it sometimes appears in a relatively pure form, sometimes as an element in mixed brachycephalic populations of multiple origin. It may have served in both Pleistocene and modern times as a bearer of the tendency toward brachycephalization into various population.

(4) Ladogan: I propose to give this name to the descendants of the mesocephalic and brachycephalic forest-dwelling population of northern Europe east of the Baltic in Kammkeramik times. This type is a blend of a partly mongoloid brachycephalic element with a mesocephalic form of general Upper Palaeolithic aspect; these elements are seen in crania from Lake Ladoga and Salis Roje. (See Chapter IV, section 13, pp. 125-126.) Corded and/or Danubian elements are inextricably blended here, although the mongoloid and Upper Palaeolithic elements seem at present more important. In its present form this composite type shows two numerous variants:

(a) Neo-Danubian: Strongly mixed with the old Danubian, and to a lesser extent other elements, to form the common peasant type of eastern Europe, with many local variants.

(b) East Baltic: Strongly mixed with Corded, Iron Age Nordic, and western Palaeolithic survivors to form the predominant population of much of Finland and the Baltic States.

(5) Lappish: A stunted, highly brachycephalized, largely brunet relative of the Ladogan, originally living to the east of the Ladogan type area, in the Urals and western Siberia. Has probably assimilated some evolved mongoloid, but owes its partly mongoloid appearance more to the retention of an early intermediate evolutionary condition. In modern times much mixed with Ladogan and Nordic.


(6) Mediterraneans: Within this general class, which still retains much of its original racial unity, the following sub-classes may at present be distinguished:

(a) Mediterranean Proper: Short-statured, dolicho- and mesocephalic form found in Spain, Portugal, the western Mediterranean islands, and to some extent in North Africa, southern Italy, and other Mediterranean borderlands. Its purest present-day racial nucleus is without doubt Arabia. Most of the Cappadocian, isolated in the skeletal material, seems to have been absorbed into the western Mediterranean variety after its early Metal Age migration, while that which remained in Asia Minor became assimilated into the Dinaric and Armenoid. It still appears, however, among individuals in its original form, and is particularly common among Oriental Jews.

(b) Atlanto-Mediterranean: The tall, straight-nosed Mediterranean, not mesocephalic, as Deniker erroneously stated, but strongly dolichocephalic. Today this race forms the principal element in the population of North Africa, and is strong in Iraq, Palestine, parts of Arabia, and the eastern Balkans; in solution with varying degrees of negroid it is also the principal race in the whole of East Africa. In Europe it is a minority element in the Iberian Peninsula, Italy, and the British Isles.

(c) Irano-Afghan: The long-faced, high-headed, hook-nosed type, usually of tall stature, which forms the principal element in the population of Iran, Afghanistan, and the Turkoman country, and which is also present in Palestine, parts of Arabia, and North Africa. It is probably related to the old Corded type of the Neolithic and Bronze Age.

(7) Nordics: The basic Nordic is the Corded-Danubian blend of the Aunjetitz and of the Early Iron Age in central Europe. This type includes some Bell Beaker Dinaric absorbed in early Metal Age times. Although Danubian and Corded types may appear as individuals, they may nowhere be isolated as populations. The most important living Nordic varieties are:

(a) Keltic Iron Age Type: The Keltic sub-type, mesocephalic and low-vaulted, with a prominent nose. Commonest in the British Isles where in places it forms the principal element in the population. Also a major element in Flanders and the Frankish country in southwestern Germany.

(b) Anglo-Saxon Type: The old Germanic Reihengräber type, a heavy-boned, rather high-headed Nordic variety, most prevalent in northern Germany and England.

(c) Trondelagen Type: A hybrid type of Nordic with Corded and Brünn elements, frequent in the central coastal provinces of Norway, north of the Dovre Mountains; the principal form in Iceland, and among the Frisians, and common in the British Isles. The Anglo-Saxon type lies between it and the true Nordic.

(d) Osterdal Type: The original Hallstatt Nordic, smaller-headed and finer boned than (b) or (c); occurs in many populations as individuals, typical only in Sweden and in the eastern valleys of Norway.


(8) Dinarics: A tall, brachycephalic type of intermediate pigmentation, usually planoccipital, and showing the facial and nasal prominence of Near Eastern peoples. The basic population of the whole Dinaric-Alpine highlands from Switzerland to Epirus, also in the Carpathians and Caucasus, as well as Syria and Asia Minor. Apparently a brachycephalized blend in which Atlanto-Mediterranean and Cappadocian strains are important, with Alpine acting as the brachycephalizing agent in mixture. Borreby and Corded elements, also Nordic, appear to be involved in some regions.

(9) Armenoids: A similar brachycephalic composite type, with the same head form as the Dinaric, but a larger face and nose. The pigmentation is almost entirely brunet, the pilous development of beard and body abundant, the nose high rooted, convex, and the tip depressed, especially in advanced age. The difference between the Armenoid and the Dinaric is that here it is the Irano-Afghan race which furnishes the Mediterranean element, brachycephalized by Alpine mixture.

(10) Noric: A blond, planoccipital brachycephal frequently encountered in South Germany and elsewhere in central Europe. This is apparently an Iron Age Nordic brachycephalized by Dinaric mixture and seems in most respects to take the form of a blond Dinaric variant. Both Deniker and Czekanowski have recognized this type, and it is a standard race, under various names, in most Russian studies. The name Noric was gived it by Lebzelter. A brachycephalized Neo-Danubian, common in Jugoslavia, is a parallel or variant form.

The ten racial types within the white race listed above, with their sub-types, form two of the three main divisions of the white race, in its widest sense, when segregated on the basis of head size. The third division, that of the peoples with small heads, includes the aboriginal population of southern Arabia east of the Yemen, and various groups in Baluchistan, and again in southern India. This third variety is characterized by an abundance of wavy or ringleted hair, and facial features of a Veddoid character which in some instances suggest Australoid affinities. This third

[Map: Racial Distribution (a) (b)]

division need not, however, concern us here, because it falls outside the major range of the white race. It will be dealt with in some detail in the proper section of the regional study.

Besides the European races proper, as listed in the preceding paragraphs, and their Veddoid collaterals, there are certain fully evolved non-white races which have influenced the European population by intrusion and blending. These include at least two of the sub-divisions of the mongoloid family - the Buryat-Mongol, to which the Avars in part belonged, and which is today represented on European soil by the Samoyeds; and the Tungusic, the type of the early Huns. To these may be added an apparently stabilized mixed form, resembling a partially mongoloid Dinaric, to which many central Asiatic Turkish tribesmen belong. In addition to these Asiatics, there remains the African Negro, which has had certain influences upon the formation of race in the Mediterranean region, especially in North Africa, and in parts of Arabia. Other non-white stocks, such as the Australoid, Negrito, and Khoi-San (Bushman-Hottentot), have not affected the white group in its homelands in any discernible way.


32 Deniker, J., The Races of Man, pp. 280-284.

33 Topinard, P., RDAP, second series, vol. 1, p. 509, 1878, etc.

34 Haeckel, E. H., Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte, vol. 7, pp. 626, 647.

35 Müller, Fr., Allgemeine Ethnographie, pp. 17-19.

36 Deniker, J., loc. cit.

37 Deniker, J., BSAP, vol. 12, 1899, p. 320; JRAI, vol. 34, 1904, pp. 181-206; The Races of Man, pp. 285-286.

38 Based upon Deniker's 1912 classification with some reference to his 1889 scheme as well.

39 Sergi, G., Specie e varieta umane; L' Uomo; Le Origini Umane; The Mediterranean Race.

40 Ripley, W. Z., The Races of Europe.

41 Gobineau, A. de, Essai sur l'inégalité des races humaines.

42 Verneau, R., BMSA, Paris, ser. 2, vol. 2, 1876, pp. 408-417; Arch des Missions Scientifiques et Litteraires, Paris, 1887,ser. 3, vol. 13, pp. 567-817.

43 Meyer, H., Die Insel Teneriffe; Über die Urbewohner der Canarischen Inseln.
Luschan, F. von, article in Meyer, Teneriffe.

44 Paudler, F., Die hellfarbigen Rassen. See also his earlier article in Anthropos, vols. 12-13, 1917-18, pp. 641-694.

45 Kossinna, G., Ursprung und Verbreitung der Germanen, MannusB, #6a, 1928.

46 Eickstedt, E. von, Rassenkunde und Rassengeschichte der Menschheit.

47 I am omitting Günther, despite his great vogue, since his system is a close Germanization of Deniker's, with a few changes.

48 Nordenstreng, R., Europas Människoraser och Folkslag.
Lundborg and Linders, Racial Characters of the Swedish Nation, pp. 50-52.
Hooton, E. A., Up from the Ape, pp. 508-509, 535.

49 Montandon, G., La Race, Les Races.

50 Czekanowski, Jan, AAnz, vol. 5, 1928, pp. 335-359; AASF, ser. A, vol. 25, #2, 1925.

51 See Chapter IV, pp. 113-115.

52 Czekanowski, J., AFA, vol. 48, 1925, pp. 65-76.

53 Günther, H., Rassenkunde der deutscen Volkes.

54 Luschan, F. von, JRAI, vol. 41, 1911, pp. 221-244.

55 Pruner Bey, F., MSAP, vol. 2, 1865, pp. 417-432.

56 Foetalization in a skeletal sense, which is, for obvious reasons, the only sense implicit here, involves a reduction of male secondary sex characters in the skull, and at the same time a reduction in skeletal sex differentiation.