ADRIATIC. A name given by Deniker
to the Dinaric race. See p. 282.
AENEOLITHIC. The Copper Age, a period of transition between the Neolithic
and the Bronze Age.
AFALOU TYPE. The rugged, oversized racial type found at Afalou bou Rummel in
AFGHANIAN. Name proposed in the present work for the skeletal counterpart of
the Irano-Afghan race. See p. 85.
AHRENSBURG. A tanged-point culture of the Early Mesolithic in northwestern
Europe. See p. 70.
ALBINO. A person totally deficient in pigmentation.
ALPINE. A name proposed by Ripley and used in this work in its original
sense. The main group of reduced Upper Palaeolithic survivors in Europe and
in western and central Asia. See p. 291.
ALTAIC. A linguistic stock widely prevalent in Asia and to a lesser extent
in Europe, including Turkish, Mongolian, Tungusic, and possibly Korean. See
ALVEOLAR. Pertaining to the tooth-bearing segments of the maxillary bones.
ALVEOLAR PROGNATHISM. A protrusion of the jaws, specifically in the region
lying between the nose and the teeth.
ALVEON (also prosthion). The most anterior point on the alveolar border of
the upper jaw, on the median line between the two upper median incisors.
ANAN’INO. An Iron Age culture of east-central Russia, supposedly associated
with Finnic-speaking peoples. See p. 224.
ANCYLUS. Name given the Baltic lake in Boreal times. See pp. 70—71.
ANDRONOVO. A Late Bronze Age culture of southwestern Siberia.
ANGLO-SAXON TYPE. A sub-type of Nordic which contains unreduced Upper
Palaeolithic mixture. See p. 293.
ANNULAR CONSTRICTION. An artificial method of altering the head shape by the
application of bands.
ANTHROPOMETRY. The measurement of the bodily characters of human beings.
ARCTIC CULTURE. An early Post-Glacial Stone Age culture of northwestern
Europe, with marked Upper Palaeolithic survivals.
ARCUS SENILIS. A deposit of fat in the cornea of the eye, which looks gray
or blue and often creates a false impression of partial eye blondism. See p.
ARMENOID. A Dinaricized Irano-Afghan type. See p. 293.
ARTIFACT. Any object fashioned by man for use.
ASCENDING RAMUS. The paired portion of the jawbone which rises from the
gonial region at the back of the tooth-bearing portion of the jaw to the
condyle and coronoid process.
ASH-BLOND (also cendré). A class of hair-blondism in which rufosity is
totally absent; ash-blond hair has a grayish or “platinum” appearance.
ASSYROID. Deniker’s name for the Armenoid racial type. See p. 282.
ASTURIAN. A Mesolithic culture of northwestern Spain.
ATERIAN. A protracted and specialized derivative of the Mousterian culture
which persistcd along the Atlantic coast of Morocco into presumably
Postglacial times. See p. 39.
"ATHLETIC.” The second of the three constitutional types postulated by the
students of human constitution; somatic—heavily muscled, heavy-boned,
ATLANTIC. Name given Period III of Baltic Mesolithic chronology, 5600— 2500
B.C. See pp. 70—72.
ATLANTO-MEDITERRANEAN. A tall brunet Mediterranean sub-race, the living
equivalent of the skeletal Megalithic. Name originally given it by Deniker.
See p. 282—see also p. 292 for definition in present classification.
ATLAS. The topmost cervical vertebra, which bears the lower pair of condyles
upon which thc skull balances.
AUNJETITZ (Uneticĕ). The Early Bronze Age culture of the Danubian region.
AURICULAR. Pertaining to the ear or ear hole.
AURICULAR HEAD HEIGHT. The height of the cranial vault measured from the top
of the ear hole, or from tragion, to vertex. This measurement is taken on
both crania and the living; on the living it is the only head height
dimension commonly taken.
AURIGNACIAN. The first of the three Upper Palaeolithic cultures of western
Europe, beginning in the warm Laufen Interglacial and ending during the Würm
II advance. More recently found in parts of Asia and Africa.
AUSTRALOID. One of the major racial divisions of mankind, typified by the
aborigines of Australia.
AXIS, AXILLARY. The arm pit. Axis also means the second cervical vertebra
from the top.
AZILIAN. A Mesolithic culture of western Europe.
BADARIAN. A predynastic culture of Upper Egypt. See p. 94.
BANDED. A type of Neolithic pottery, found first in Danubian I, decorated by
bands of incisions.
BASION. An anatomical point on the midpoint of the posterior border of the
BASION-BREGMA HEIGHT. The height of the cranial vault from basion to bregma.
BATTLE-AXE PEOPLE. Another name for the Corded people, who habitually buried
double-bitted stone battle-axes with their dead.
BEAKER. See Bell Beaker, Zoned Beaker. The term Beaker, used alone, serves
conveniently to designate either or both subdivisions.
BELL BEAKER. A type of Early Bronze Age pottery characteristic of a culture
which is believed to have arisen in Spain, and which had wide ramifications
in western and central Europe.
BELL-SHAPED CURVE (normal probability curve). A statistical phenomenon,; the
distribution curve which results under conditions of random sampling
whenfrequencies of consecutive metrical categories are plotted in a
significant biometric sample.
BIACROMINAL DIAMETER. Shoulder breadth, the distance between the acromion
processes of the scapulae (shoulder blades) in the living.
BICONDYLAR DIAMETER. The maximum external distance between the condyles of
BIGONIAL DIAMETER. The maximum distance between the external gonial angles
of the mandible, taken both on the dry mandible and on the living.
BI-ILIAC DIAMETER. The distance between the iliac crests of the pelvis;
maximum hip breadth.
BIMAXILLARY BREADTH. The distance between the lower borders of the
malar-maxillary sutures of the facial skeleton.
BIMODAL. The condition which occurs when two metrically distinct factors are
present in a numerically adequate frequency curve so that the curve has two
BIOMETRIC. Pertaining to the accurate measurement of living beings.
BIORBITAL DIAMETER. The distance between the outer borders of the two bony
BIZYGOMATIC DIAMETER. The maximum distance between the two zygomatic arches;
BOAT-AXE. Another name for the perforated, double-bitted stone battle-axe
used by the Corded people.
BODILY HABITUS. Constitutional type, bodily build.
BOREAL. Period II of the Baltic Mesolithic, from 6800 to 5600 B.C. See pp.
BORREBY. An unreduced brachycephalic Upper Palaeolithic survivor. See page
BRACHYCEPHALIC. Possessing a cephalic index of 81.0 to 85.4; round or short
BRACHYCEPHALIZATION. The process of producing brachycephaly within a
BRACHYCEREBRAL. A term coined to indicate a round or relatively short-bramed
BRACHYCRANIAL. Possessing a cranial index of 80.0 and over, round- or
BREADTH-HEIGHT INDEX. Head height x 100 / Head breadth. On the living the
height measurement is the auricular height; on the skull the basion-bregma
height is usually employed.
BREGMA-LAMBDA ARC. The sagittal length of the parietal bones, measured on
the outer surface of the cranial vault.
BROCH. A type of corbelled stone tower of Bronze Age date found in Scotland.
See p. 148.
BROWRIDGE. A prominence of the frontal area immediately above the orbits and
nasal root, and, on the living, underlying the eyebrows.
BRÜNN. Name of a city in Czechoslovakia, and of a number of Upper
Palaeolithic skulls found nearby. In the present work it also designates a
living racial type which recapitulates that of the dolichocephalic
Aurignacian peoples of central Europe. See p. 291.
BRYTHONIC. Kymric, P-Keltic of England and Wales.
BURGWALL. Name given to Slavic moated villages of the early Christian era.
See p. 216.
BURYAT-MONGOL. A brachycephalic mongoloid race with extreme mongoloid
BUSHMAN. A native of South Africa. The Bushmen and Hottentots form together
one of the primary racial divisions of mankind.
CALVA. The skull cap, lacking the face and the base of the skull.
CALVARIUM. The entire skull with the exception of the mandible.
CANINE FOSSA. A depression in the maxillary bone immediately under the
infraorbital foramen of the cranium.
CAPPADOCIAN. See p. 85.
CAPSIAN. See p. 35.
CAUCASIC. Languages spoken in the Caucasus, including Georgian, Circassian,
Chechen and Lesghian—these languages, which may or may not be mutually
related, form the nucleus of Marr’s “Japhetic” stock. (See Japhetic.)
CELT. A polished stone axe or adze.
CENOZOIC. The division of geological time extending from the end of the
Mesozoic to the present.
CENTUM. One of the two primary divisions of the Indo-European linguistic
stock, based on the retention of the consonant K.
CEPHALIC INDEX. Head length x 100 / Head breadth. The ratio of head length
to head breadth; the most commonly used index of the human body in racial
studies. [SNPA: this entry should read: Head
breadth x 100 / Head length]
CEPHALIC MODULE. Head length + head breadth + auricular height / 3. The
average of the three principal diameters of the cranial vault on the living;
thus a measure of absolute head size.
CERVICAL. Pertaining to the neck.
CHALCOLITHIC. The Copper Age. See Copper Age, Aenolithic.
CHAMAECONCH. Possessing an orbital index of 82.9 and under; low-orbitted.
CHAMAERRHINE. Possessing a nasal index of 51.0 and over on the skull;
CHATELPERRONIAN. A division of the Aurignacian of western Europe
distinguished on the basis of a special flint-chipping technique and
formerly known as the Lower Aurignacian.
CLAVICO-HUMERAL INDEX. Maximum clavicle length / Maximum humerus length. The
ratio between the length of the clavicle (collar bone) and that of the
humerus (upper arm bone); see p. 41.
COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION. See p. 246.
COMBED POTTERY. See p. 125. A Neolithic pottery type found at various in the
forest belt stretching across three continents from the Baltic to New
CONDYLES. The paired articulating surfaces of a bone at a movable joint;
occipital condyles are the surfaces of the base of the skull which
articulate with the axis; mandibular condyles are the hinges of the jaw.
CONSTITUTIONAL TYPE. See pyknic, somatic, leptosome. A division of mankind
into specific types on the basis of total bodily form, cutting across
conventional racial lines.
COPPER AGE. A period of transition between the Neolithic and the Bronze Age,
also called Aenolithic.
CORDED. A type of pottery decoration made by applying cords to the surface
of the pot when wet; the people who habitually used these pots; the skeletal
racial type of these people. See p. 85.
CORNEA. The outer layer of eye tissue immediately over the iris.
CORRELATION. The established relationship between two or more variables; see
CORRIDOR TOMB. A late Megalithic burial chamber in the form of a long
CRANIAL INDEX. Cranial length x 100 / Cranial breadth
[SNPA: this entry should read: Cranial breadth x 100 /
CRANIOLOGY, CRANIOLOGICAL. The science of the skull.
CRANIUM. The entire skull, including the mandible.
CRESWELLIAN. A Postglacial culture of Great Britain, Mesolithic with strong
CURVOCCIPITAL. Having a curved occipital region.
CUSHITIC. A term used to designate the Hamitic languages of East Africa.
CYPRIOTE. Pertaining to the Bronze Age in Cyprus.
DALO-NORDIC. See p. 285. Paudler’s name for dolichocephalic unreduced Upper
Palaeolithic survivors. Also called Fälish by Gunther.
DANUBIAN. The small mesorrhine or chamaerrhine Mediterranean racial type
which introduced Neolithic food production into central Europe. See p.. 85.
DARDIC. A division of Satem Indo-European speech closely related to Iranian.
DIASPORA. Scattering, migration in many directions, applied specifically to
historical Jewish movements.
DINARIC. A racial type concentrated in the mountain zone reaching from
Switzerland to Epirus. See p. 293.
DINARICIZATION. A special process of hybridization; see Chapter XII, secs.
11, 12, 17; also legend to plate 35.
DOLICHOCEPHALIC. Possessing a cephalic index of 75.9 and under; long- or
narrow-headed, or both.
DOLICHOCRANIAL. Possessing a cranial index of 74.9 and under; long- or
narrow-skulled, or both.
DOLMEN. A megalithic chambered rock tomb, originally covered with earth.
DOMINANCE. In Mendelian terminology, the ability of a given genetic trait or
character to assert itself over a so-called “recessive” trait or character.
DRAVIDIAN. A language family of southern India and Baluchistan. Also a
racial type designated by Deniker. See p. 282.
EAST BALTIC. A composite race found in eastern Baltic lands, of composite
origin. See p. 292.
ELMENTEITAN. A microlithic culture found by Leakey in East Africa, and
called Mesolithic. Its exact time position is in doubt. See p. 57.
ENDOCRANIAL. Referring to the inner surface of the cranial vault. Pertaining
to the ductless glands.
EPICATHUS. See mongoloid fold.
EPIPALAEOLITHIC. A name given the early Mesolithic cultures largely
ERTEBØLLE. A mesolithic culture of the Baltic region during Atlantic times
(Period III). See pp. 70—72.
ETHNIC UNIT. A concept which has both sociological and biological
implications: a community in the larger sense of the word; an intermarrying
group of people united in a cultural sense, and forming an ethnos, but not
necessarily united geographically.
EURAFRICAN. A name given by Sergi to the entire white group of
dolichocephalic tendency, as opposed to Eurasiatic. Among Mesopotamian
archaeologists this word has taken on a special meaning. See p. 87.
EURASIATIC. Sergi’s word to designate the entire body of brachycephalic
whites. See p. 284.
EURYENE. Possessing an upper facial index of 49.9 and under on the skull;
short or broad upper-faced, or both.
EURYPROSOPIC. Possessing (on the living) a facial index of 83.9 and under;
short- or broad-faced, or both.
EYE-EAR PLANE. A conventional or standard level at which the skull is placed
for craniometric study, with the lower border of the left orbit on the same
horizontal plane as the upper borders of the two ear holes.
FACETS (SQUATTING). Supplementary articulary surfaces of the foot and leg
bones thought to be caused by habitual squatting.
Total face height X 100
FACIAL INDEX. Total face height x 100 / Bizygomatic. Used both on the
cranium and on the living.
FÄLISH. See Dalo-Nordic.
FATJANOVO. A Neolithic culture of southern Russia and the Caucasus.
FAVUS. A serious scalp disease which causes baldness and reduces the regions
affected to scar tissue.
FEMUR. The thigh bone.
FENNO-Nordic. The name given by von Eickstedt to a hypothetical eastern
branch of the Nordic race. See p. 282.
FIBULA. The outer and thinner of the two long bones of the lower leg.
FINNO-Ugrian. The major branch of the Uralic linguistic stock, and a
possible element in the formation of Indo-European. See pp. 337—339.
FOETALIZED, FOETALIZATION. See p. 291, footnote 56.
FOOD-VESSEL. A Bronze Age ceramic type, used in Ireland and western Great
FORAMEN MAGNUM. The main opening at the base of skull through which the
brain is connected to the major nerves of the body.
FRONTAL. Pertaining to the bone of the skull which underlies the forehead
FRONTAL BOSSES. Paired tuberosities or eminences on the forehead.
GERONTOMORPHIC. The opposite of foetalized, paedomorphic, and infantile. A
word coined by Marett to indicate an extremely adult phenotypical condition.
GIBBONOID. Resembling the gibbon, the smallest and most arboreal of the four
GLABELLA. The area of the frontal bone, usually projecting, which lies
immediately above the root of the nose and which forms the central portion
of the brow region.
GLABELLO-OCCIPITAL LENGTH. The maximum length of the skull taken from
GONIAL ANGLES. The outer posterior angles or corners of the lower jaw, at
the bases of the ascending rami.
GRIMALDIAN. A local form of Aurignacian, found in Italy, which persisted
without interruption to the Neolithic. See p. 69, footnote 30.
GUANCHE. The name given the pre-Spanish inhabitants of the Canary Islands.
Hooton’s name for the Afalou-like Canarian type of skull.
HALLSTATT. The first of the two major divisions of the central European Iron
HAMBURG CULTURE. A local Upper Palaeolithic culture of northern Germany, in
part contemporaneous with the French Magdalenian. See p. 70.
HAMITIC. A linguistic stock confined to the continent of Africa. Also used
in a racial sense to designate the slightly negroid tall Mediterranean
racial division associated locally in East Africa with Hamitic languages.
HEAD-SPANNER. A special anthropometric instrument designed to facilitate
measurement of auricular head height on the living. See p. 243.
HELLADIC. A Bronze Age cultural period in Greece.
HELLENIC. A branch of Indo-European Speech.
HORIZONTAL CIRCUMFERENCE. The maximum circumference of the cranial vault
taken above the browridges.
HUMERUS. The upper arm bone.
HYPERBRACHYCEPHALIC, -Y. Possessing a cephalic index of 85.6 and over;
extremely round- or short-headed.
HYPERDOLICHOCEPHALIC Possessing an extremely low cephalic index; extremely
long- or narrow-headed, or both.
HYPEREURYENE. Possessing an upper facial index of 44.9 and under on the
skull, extremely long or narrow upper-faced, or both.
HYPERLEPTOPROSOPIC. Possessing (on the living) a facial index of 93.0 or
over, extremely long- or narrow-faced, or both.
HYPERMASCULINE. Possessing in excessive quantity traits which may be COfl
sidered to be male secondary sex characters.
HYPSICEPHALIC. Possessing a length-height index of 62.6 and over on the
living; high headed.
HYPSICONCH. Possessing an orbital index of 89.0 and over; high orbitted.
IBERO-INSULAR. Deniker’s name for the short-statured, relatively small
Mediterranean sub-race, called in this book Mediterranean Proper, or small
Mediterranean. See pp. 282—283.
INCIPIENT BLONDISM. A minor incidence of mixed eye color; of reddish or
brown hairs, most frequent on the beard; or both. It is suggested that such
occurrences of partial blondism in a population remote from Nordic centers
may be an endemic mutative tendency and not the result of mixture with
Nordics or members of other fully blond races.
INCIPIENTLY MONGOLOID. A racial type which has evolved part way in a
mongoloid direction, and which may have other, non-mongoloid specializations
of its own, is called incipiently mongoloid.
INDO-AFGHAN. Deniker’s name for the racial type designated in this book as
Irano-Afghan. See p. 282.
INDO-ARYANS. Name given the Indo-European-speaking invaders of Persia,
Afghanistan, and India.
INDO-EUROPEAN. A linguistic stock to which most languages spoken in Europe
belong; it is thought to have been originally a hybrid between Finno-Ugrian
and Caucasic with an early Altaic infusion. See pp. 178—182.
INFANTILISM Presence in the adult phenotype of certain features which appear
to be infant-like; a condition which is partially synonymous with
foetalization and paedomorphism.
INION. A projection in the center of the superior nuchal line of the
occipital bone. Inion may be absent in cases of occipital torus.
INTEGUMENT. Skin, as opposed to membrane.
INTEGUMENTAL LIPS. The entire fleshy section of the outer face, covered with
integument, reaching from chin to nose, which may be designated as upper and
INTERGLACIAL. A geological period of relative warmth falling between two
major glacial advances.
INTEROCULAR DIAMETER. The distance between the inner corners of the eyes.
INTERORBITAL DISTANCE. The distance between the inner borders of the bony
INTERPLUVIAL. A geological period of low precipitation between pluvial
IRANO-AFGHAN. The living replica of the skeletal Afghanian race. See p. 292.
IRIDICAL. Pertaining to the iris.
IRIS. The light-diaphragm of the eye.
JAPHETIC. A hypothetical linguistic stock postulated by Professor Marr. See
KAMMKERAMIK. See Combed pottery.
KELTIC IRON AGE TYPE. A sub-type of Nordic associated with Keltic-speaking
peoples during the Iron Age. See pp. 292—293.
KHOI-SAN. The Bushman-Hottentot linguistic stock; also, the
KITCHEN-MIDDEN An archaeological shell deposit, usually occurring along the
sea-shore and often of Mesolithic date.
KURGAN. A type of burial mound used in eastern Europe, especially southern
Russia, from the Neolithic period through the Iron Age.
LADIN. The Rhaeto-Roman language of the Engadine, in the canton of Grisons,
Switzerland; also in the Italian Tyrol.
LADINO. The archaic Spanish language of the Sephardic Jews, not to be
confused with the Rhaeto-Roman Ladin of the Grisons and Tyrol.
LADOGAN. An eastern European racial type of Upper Palaeolithic origin. See
LAKE DWELLING CULTURE. A lacustrine Neolithic culture of western
Swjtzerland, notable because of the preservation of wooden objects,
textiles, and vegetable foodstuffs in the mud under the Lake Dwellings. It
is actually a Mesolithic survival with the addition of a Neolithic economy.
See p. 113.
LAMBDOID. Pertaining to the region of lambda, at the juncture of the
parietal and occipital bones.
LAMBDOID FLATTENING. An inheritable and non-artificial flattening or
depression of the segment of the sagittal suture of the skull immediately
LAPPISH. A racial type identified with the Lapps in their unmixed form. See
LAPPONOID. Czekanowskj’s name for the Alpine race. See p. 288.
LA TÈNE. The second or Keltic Iron Age in central Europe and elsewhere.
LATERAL. A word used in this work to describe stocky, thick-set, wide-bodied
constitutional types or type combinations, implying somatic, pyknic, or
LAUFEN. The name given the Würm I—Würm II interglacial period of the Late
LAUSITZ. A central European Urnfields culture of the Late Bronze Age.
LENGTH-HEIGHT INDEX. Head height x 100 / Head length. On the living, the
height measurement is the auricular height; on the skull, the basion-bregma
height is usually employed.
LEPTENE. Possessing an upper facial index of 55.0 and over on the skull;
long or narrow upper-faced, or both.
LEPTOPROSOPIC. Possessing (on the living) a facial index of 88.0 to 92.9;
long- or narrow-faced, or both.
LEPTORRHINE. Possessing a nasal index of 46.9 and under on the skull, or of
69.9 and under on the living; relatively narrow-nosed.
LEPTOSOME. The third component designated by students of constitutional
types; long, lean, narrow, attenuated.
LEVALLOISO-MOUSTERIAN. A Middle Palaeolithic culture with both Levalloisian
and Mousterian elements.
LINEAR. A word used in this work to describe slender, wiry, thin-bodied
constitutional types or type combinations, implying leptosome, somatic, or
LIP SEAM. A thin zone of connective tissue separating the membrane of the
lips from the integument.
LITORINA. The name given the salt Baltic Sea during Atlantic time, from
5000— 2400 B.C.
LITTORAL. An alternate name, employed by Deniker, to designate the
Atlanto-Mediterranean race. See p. 282.
LONG BARROW. An earth covered Megalithic tumulus found principally in the
British Isles. Also, the exaggeratedly long-headed Mediterranean racial type
associated with these burials. See p. 111.
LYNGBY. An antler ax culture of the Early Mesolithic in northwestern Europe.
See pp. 70—71.
MAGDALENIAN. The final cultural division of the Upper Palaeolithic in most
of Europe, lasting through the Würm II maximum.
MAGLEMOSE. A Mesolithic forest culture of northern Europe during Boreal
times (6800—5600 B.c.). See pp. 70—72.
MALARS. The paired cheek-bones.
MANDIBLE. The lower jaw-bone.
MASTICATORY APPARATUS. The mandible, maxillae, glenoid fossae, teeth, and
the muscles of chewing.
MASTOID CRESTS. See supramastoid ridges.
MAXILLAE. The paired bones of the face which bear the teeth of the upper
MAXIMUM BIPARIETAL BREADTH. The maximum breadth of the skull taken above the
MAXIMUM FRONTAL DIAMETER. The distance between the lower anterior
extremities of the frontal bone at the fronto-malar junctures.
MEAN. The statistical average of a metrical series.
MEDITERRANEAN. A name used in this work to designate the entire family of
non-Neanderthaloid dolicho- or mesocephalic whites, including both blond and
brunet varieties. In the, narrower sense it refers to the small
Mediterranean, Mediterranean Proper, or Ibero-Insular race. See pp. 82—86.
MEGALITHIC. A name given in this work to the skeletal protype of the
Atlanto-Mediterranean race. See p. 85.
MELANIN. See definition on p. 273.
MEMBRANOUS LIPS. The portion of the lips, exposed when the mouth is normally
closed, which is covered by membrane.
MENDELIAN. Pertaining to the laws of inheritance postulated by Mendel.
MENTAL. Pertaining to the bony chin. Also, the usual meaning of the word.
MENTON. The lowest central point of the symphysis of the mandible, beneath
the bony chin.
MERIMDIAN. An Early Neolithic culture of the Egyptian Delta. See p. 93.
MEROVINGIAN. Pertaining to the Germanic inhabitants of France and Belgium
from the days of the Frankish invaders to the fall of the Merovingian
MESENE. Possessing an upper facial index of 50.0 to 54.9 on the skull; of
moderate or intermediate upper face form.
MESOCEPHALIC. Possessing a cephalic index of 76.0 to 80.9; intermediate in
MESOCONCH. Possessing an orbital index of 83.0 to 88.9; of moderate or
intermediate orbital form.
MESOCRANIAL. Possessing a cranial index of 75.0 to 79.9; of moderate or
intermediate skull form.
MESOLITHIC. See page 56 for definition.
MESOPROSOPIC. Possessing (on the living) a facial index of 84.0 to 87.9:
moderate in face form.
MESORRHINE. Possessing a nasal index of 47.0 to 50.9 on the skull, or of 70
to 84.9 on the living; of moderate nasal proportions.
METRICAL CHARACTERS. Diameters, circumferences, arcs, and indices;
anatomical traits numerically expressed.
MICHELSBERG. A Neolithic pottery culture of southwestern Germany, supposedly
of North African inspiration. See p. 110.
MICROCEPHALIC. Pathologically very small-headed, with an implication of
MICROLITHS. Small flint blades characteristic of the Mesolithic in Europe
and culturally derived from North Africa, western Asia, or both.
MIDDEN. A shell heap.
MINERAL DEFICIENCY. A deficiency, over a long period of time, of certain
minerals in the human diet has been proposed by Marett as one of the basic
causes of human racial differentiation.
MINIMUM FRONTAL DIAMETER. The minimum distance between the temporal crests
of the frontal bone.
MODALITY. The statistical character of possessing a mode or modes.
MODE. The value or values with highest frequency in a statistical
MONGOLOID. One of the major racial divisions of mankind, centered chiefly in
the continent of Asia. The “yellow race” of Blumenbach.
MONGOLOID FOLD. An internal epicanthic eyefold common among mongoloids, and
creating a slant-eyed or slit-eyed appearance.
MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS. Non-metrical, observational attributes of the
MORPHOLOGICAL FACE HEIGHT. The height of the face from nasion to menton.
Also called total face height and nasion-menton height.
MORPHOLOGICAL UPPER FACE HEIGHT. The height of the face from nasion to
alveon or prosthion; on the living, to the lower border of the gums between
the two upper median incisors. Also called simply upper face height.
MOUSTERIAN. The Middle Palaeolithic culture associated in western Europe
with Neanderthal man.
MUTATION, MUTATIVE. An abrupt evolutionary change of the type postulated by
NAQADA. A Predynastic site in Upper Egypt, from which a large cranial series
has been excavated. See p. 95.
NASAL INDEX. Nose breadth x 100 / Nose height.
NAŠILI. A form of Indo-European speech employed in Asia Minor during the
Bronze Age. See p.135.
NASIO-BREGMATIC ARC. The distance, on the external surface of the skull in a
sagittal line, between nasion and bregma; the sagittal arc of the frontal
NASION. The midpoint on the naso-frontal suture; the root of the nose.
NASION DEPRESSION. The depression in the facial profile below glabella, in
the region of nasion; or the root of the nose.
NASION-MENTON HEIGHT. The total or morphological face height. See mor
phological face height.
NASO-LABIAL FOLDS. The creases running from the nasal wings to the corners
of the mouth, and delimiting the area of the integumental upper lip.
NATUFIAN. A Mesolithic culture of Palestine. See p. 61.
NAVETA. A type of long barrow found in the Balaeric Islands.
NEGROID. One of the major divisions of mankind, centered in the continent of
NEOLITHIC. See p. 78, 1st paragraph.
NORDIC. A blond branch of the greater Mediterranean race, created by the
mixture of Corded and Danubian elements, and divided into several subtypes.
See p. 292. Unfortunately this term is also used by archaeologists to
designate a specific Neolithic cultural complex, without racial implication.
NORDICISM. The misuse of racial terminology for political purposes, based on
the unproved assumption that Nordics are superior in mental and moral
attributes to members of other races.
NORIC. A blond, Dinaricized Nordic. See p. 293.
NORMAL PROBABILITY CURVE. See bell-shaped curve.
NORTHWESTERN. A name given by Deniker to a blue-eyed dark-haired racial
element in Ireland, which he considered to be a segment of the
Atlanto-Mediterranean race. See p. 283.
NOSE HEIGHT. The height of the nose; on the skull, from nasion to the lower
borders of the piriform opening; on the living, from nasion to the lowest
point on the posterior border of the nasal septum, where it joins the upper
NURAGHE. A type of corbelled stone tower of Bronze Age date found in
OCCIPITAL. Pertaining to the occiput, the bone which extends from the
foramen magnum to lambda and which forms the lower posterior portion of the
OCCIPITAL FLATTENING. A vertical flattening of the occipital bone below
lambda; in some cases of hereditary and in others of artificial causation.
OCCIPITAL TORUS. A pronounced ridging of the superior nuchal line of the
OLD STONE AGE. The Palaeolithic.
OLOGENESIS. An evolutionary theory originated by Rosa and expounded by
Montandon. See p. 287.
OPHYRON. An arbitrary point on the median sagittal line of the frontal bone,
immediately above, and usually posterior to, glabella.
OPISTHION. The midpoint on the posterior border of the foramen magnum.
ORANIAN. An archaeological culture of western Algeria and of Morocco, during
Late Pleistocene and Early Post-Pleistocene times. See p. 39.
ORBIT. The bony eye socket.
ORIENTAL. Deniker’s name for an eastern European racial type designated in
this work as Neo-Danubian. See pp. 282—283.
ORTHOCEPHALIC. Possessing a length-height index on the skull of 74.9 or
under; on the living of 62.9 or under; relatively low-headed.
ORTHOGNATHOUS. Straight-jawed, as opposed to prognathous.
OSTEOLOGY. The scientific study of bones.
OSTERDAL TYPE. The classic Iron Age Nordic, as found today in the eastern
valleys of Norway.
OSTEUROPID. Von Eickstedt’s name for the Neo-Danubian and East Baltic racial
PAEDOMORPHIC. Child-like in bodily form, a partial synonym of foetalized and
PAINTED POTTERY. A widespread type of Neolithic pottery widely distributed
in Asia and coming into Europe in Danubian II. See p. 105.
PALAEASIATIC. A linguistic term designating the non-Altaic languages of
eastern Siberia. The word is also applied by extension to speakers of these
PALAEOLITHIC. The age of chipped stone; chronologically synchronous, in most
if not all of the Old World, with the Pleistocene.
PALATAL TORUS. A thickening and downward projection of the central, sagittal
line marking the junction of the two sides of the palate.
PALPATION. Feeling with the finger or fingers to locate anatomical
PALPEDRAL OPENING. The distance between the eyelids when the eye is open.
PAPUAN. Pertaining to New Guinea—in the racial sense, a prominent-nosed,
fuzzy-haired, black-skinned Oceanic negroid, probably of composite origin.
PARIETAL. The parietal bones, which lie on either side of the sagittal
suture of the skull, form the upper central portion of the cranial vault.
PASSAGE GRAVE. See corridor tomb.
PERMIAN. A sub-family of Finno-Ugrian.
PHALANGES. The bones of the fingers and toes.
PHRYGIANS. An Indo-European-speaking people who invaded Asia Minor from the
Balkans during the early part of the first millennium B.C. See p. 136.
PILASTER (OF FEMUR). A longitudinal bony crest on the posterior surface of
the thigh bone.
PILE-DWELLING. Czekanowski’s name for a hypothetical Mediterranean-Alpine
hybrid race. See p. 288.
PILOUS. Pertaining to hair.
PIRIFORM OPENING. The aperture of the nasal passages in the facial skeleton.
P-KELTIC. The Kymric branch of the Keltic linguistic family, including
Welsh, Cornish, Breton and all known Continental forms spoken in antiquity.
See pp. 186—187.
PLEISTOCENE. See p. 1, footnote 1; also p. 18, footnote 3.
PLUVIAL PERIOD. A long period of exceptional rainfall in regions remote from
centers of glaciation, and considered by some geologists to have coincided
with maximum glacial advances elsewhere.
POLLEN-ANALYSIS. A specialized study by which palaeobotanists date sites or
specimens, especially in the Baltic Mesolithic. See p. 74.
PONTIC. A variety of Mediterranean or Atlanto-Mediterranean, so named by
Bunak. It is concentrated in Bulgaria and in the Rumanian lowlands: it also
is found in the Caucasus and Ukraine and westward sporadically as far as
Germany, Poland, and Lithuania.
POOLING. Combining samples for statistical purposes.
POST-MORTEM DEFORMATION. Deformation of skulls after burial, owing to earth
pressure or other causes. See p. 119.
PRE-SLAVIC. Czekanowski’s name for the type called in this work
PRIMATE. The mammalian order to which belong lemurs, tarsiers, monkeys,
apes, and men.
PROBABLE ERROR. See p. 246.
PROGNATHISM. A forward projection of the jaws.
PROSTHION. See Alevon.
PROTO-GEOMETRIC. A pottery name applied to an archaic, Iron Age cultural
period in Greece.
PSUEDO-MONGOLOID FOLD. A term coined by Seligman to designate a class of
internal eyefold found among Sudanese negroes.
[SNPA: this entry should read: PSEUDO-]
PUBIS, PUBIC. The region of the pubic symphysis, immediately anterior to the
external genitalia. Pubic hair is the sex-linked pilous covering of the
PUPIL. The circular aperture in the center of the iris of varying diameter,
depending on the brightness of the light to which the eye is exposed.
PUSHTU. A division of the Iranian branch of Satem Indo-European speech,
spoken mostly in eastern Iran, in Afghanistan and in northwestern India.
PYGMY. The negrito group, from the Congo to New Guinea, presumably one of
the major racial divisions of mankind.
PYKNIC. The first component designated by students of constitutional types;
round, broad in proportion to length, possessing of a small surface in
relationship to total bulk.
Q-KELTIC. The Goidelic branch of the Keltic linguistic group, including
Irish and Scots Gaelic and Manx. See pp. 186—187.
QUERN. A hand mill for grinding grain.
RACE. See pp. 3 seq.
RACIOLOGIST. A student of race, sometimes used in the political sense.
RADIUS. The rotating long bone of the lower arm.
RECENT. Post-Pleistocene, post-glacial time.
RECOMBINATION. The genetic union of traits originally associated with
diverse parental stocks.
REDUCED TYPE. A racial type which has grown smaller than its ancestral type
and has consequently changed in certain proportions as a result of this size
REËMERGENCE. The reappearance of an older racial entity through the vehicle
of a mixed population by the mechanism of differential selection.
REIHENGRÄBER. Early Germanic cemeteries, of pre-Christian times. Also a term
applied to the Germanic form of Nordic skull associated with them.
RELATIVE SHOULDER BREADTH. Biacromial diameter x 100 / Stature.
RELATIVE SITTING HEIGHT. Sitting height x 100 / Stature. The ratio of
sitting height to stature.
RELATIVE SPAN. Span x 100 / Stature. The ratio of span to stature.
RETINA. The posterior surface of the main eye chamber, sensitized for the
reception of images cast upon it by the lens.
ROMANSCH. The Rhaeto-Roman languages of the Bünder Oberland in the canton of
ROUND BARROW. A tumulus erected over a simple grave. This was the
characteristic burial type in Bronze Age Britain. See p. 159.
RUFUS, RUFOSITY. Red-haired.
SAMPLE, SAMPLING. In statistical parlance, the random selection of a part of
a population to represent the whole.
SATEM. One of the two primary divisions of the Indo-European linguistic
stock, based on the consonantal shift from K to S.
SCAPULA. The shoulder blade.
SCHWEINHIRTENKULTUR See Swineherds.
SEBILIAN. A Mesolithic culture of Upper Egypt. See p. 92.
SEMITIC. A linguistic stock including Hebrew, Babylonian, Arabic, Ethiopic,
among other languages.
SHOE-LAST CELT. A flint hoe-blade used by the Neolithic Danubians.
SHORT CIST. A Bronze Age burial vault of Ireland and Scotland.
SIGMOID NOTCH. The curved upper surface of the ascending ramus of the
mandible between the coronoid process and the condyle.
SITTING HEIGHT. The height of the human body from chair to vertex, taken
while the subject is sitting erect.
SOLUTREAN. The second of the three cultural periods of the Upper
Palaeolithic in western and central Europe.
SOMATIC. When used by students of constitutional types, this word indicates
their second component, the “athletic,” or thick-set, heavily muscled,
square, otherwise simply “pertaining to the body.”
SPAN. The distance between the two
middle finger tips when the arms are stretched in opposite directions;
maximum arm stretch.
SPHINCTERS. Concentric “puckering” muscles, as in the iris and around the
STANDARD DEVIATION. See p. 246.
SUB-ATLANTIC. The latest of the post-glacial climatic periods of
northwestern Europe, beginning about 500 B.C. We are still in it.
SUB-BOREAL. The warm, dry climatic period in northwestern Europe which
lasted from approximately 2500 to 500 B.C.
SUB-BRACHYCEPHALIC. Possessing a cephalic index of 80.0 to 82.0; moderately
SUB-NORDIC. Deniker’s name for a racial group which would fall partly in the
East Baltic and partly in the Neo-Danubian categories of the present book.
See p. 283.
SUPERCILIARY. The superciliary region is the browridge area, literally the
region above the eyelids.
SUPRAMASTOID RIDGES. Bony crests above the mastoids, usually on the temporal
bones alone, but extending in some cases onto the parietals.
SUPRAORBITAL REGION. The area of the frontal bone immediately above the
SUPRAORBITAL TORUS. An exaggerated form of browridge in which the prominence
SWINEHERDS. A word used by Menghin to designate the Neolithic invaders who
presumably entered western Europe by way of North Africa and Spain.
SYMPHYSIAL HEIGHT (or MANDIBLE). The depth of the mandible from the point
between the two lower median incisors to menton.
TACHE NOIRE. An area of low stature, supposedly due to malnutrition, or to
environmental causes in general.
TALAYOT. A type of corbelled stone tower, of Bronze Age date, found in the
TANGED POINT. A flint point tanged for hafting; found in the Aterian of
North Africa and in some of the Epipalaeolithic cultures of northwestern
TARDENOISIAN. A microlithic culture of the European Mesolithic, of North
African or Asiatic inspiration, or derived from both sources.
TASIAN. An early Neolithic culture of Upper Egypt. See p. 93.
TAURODONTISM. A dental condition characterized by the enlargement of the
TAXONOMY. Zoological classification into species, genera, etc.
TEMPORAL. One of the paired bones of the side of the skull which contains
the auditory mechanism and includes the mastoid process and the posterior
segment of the zygomatic arch.
TEMPORAL MUSCLE. The muscle which passes from the coronoid process of the
mandible under the zygomatic arch to its area of attachment on the frontal,
temporal and parietal bones.
TERP. A habitation mound built on seasonally flooded ground in the
Netherlands in the days before the dykes were erected.
TERREMARE. A type of moated village built in northeastern Italy during the
Late Bronze Age.
TEUTONIC. Ripley’s word to designate the Nordic race.
TEUTO-NORDIC. Paudler’s name for the Germanic-Nordic type. See p. 285
TIBIA. The inner and thicker of the two long bones of the lower leg.
TOKHARIAN B. An extinct Centum Indo-European language spoken in the early
centuries of the present era in Chinese Turkestan.
TORUS. One of the several bony ridges or crests which may occur on the
TOTAL FACE HEIGHT. See morphological face height.
TRAGION. A point on the upper side of the fleshy projection, called tragus,
which lies immediately in front of the ear hole. This point is used as a
landmark for taking auricular head height on the living.
TRANSVERSE CIRCUMFERENCE. The circumference of the skull across the two
porions (ear holes) and bregma.
TREPHINE. To remove a portion of the skull-vault surgically.
TRØNDELAGEN TYPE, TRØNDER TYPE. A variety of Nordic with an excessive Corded
element and Upper Palaeolithic mixture.
TUMULUS, TUMULUS. A burial mound. In the late Bronze Age of central Europe
there was a specific Tumulus culture.
TUNGUSIC. A mesocephalic mongolid racial type common among the living Tungus
and the historic Huns.
TURANID. Von Eickstedt’s name for a hybrid mongoloid-white racial type found
commonly among certain Turkish-speaking peoples of central Asia.
TYMPANIC PLATE. That portion of the temporal bone which forms the anterior
border of the auditory opening, or bony ear hole.
ULNA. The non-rotating long bone of the lower arm.
UPPER FACE HEIGHT. On the skull, the distance from nasion to alveon; on the
living, the distance from nasion to the lowest point on the gums between the
two upper median incisors, corresponding as nearly as possible to the
measurement on the skull.
UPPER FACIAL INDEX. Upper face height x 100 / Bizygomatic. Used both on tne
cranium and on the living.
URAL-ALTAIC. A term designating the two linguistic stocks Uralic and Altaic.
URALIC. A linguistic stock including Samoyedic and Finno-Ugrian. For the
divisions of Finno-Ugrian, see p. 339.
URNFIELDS. A group of Late Bronze Age cultures in central Europe,
characterized by cremation.
VASCULARITY. Redness of the skin, especially when exposed to the sun and
VEDDOID. The racial group to which the Vedda of Ceylon, the Toala of the
Celebes, the Shom Pen of the Nicobars, etc., belong; presumably one of the
major racial divisions of mankind.
VERTEX. The highest point on a skull when held in the eye-ear plane.
VILLANOVA. An Iron Age culture of northern Italy.
VISTULAN. Deniker’s name for a supposed sub-variety of the Oriental
or Neo-Danubian racial group. See p. 283.
VÖLKERWANDERUNG. The main period of Germanic migrations.
WILTON A. A Mesolithic culture of East Africa, associated with ancestral
WINDMILL HILL. A Neolithic pottery culture of England, supposedly of North
African inspiration. See p. 110.
WÜRM. The last of the four Pleistocene glacial advances, now divided into
Würm I and Würm II, with the Laufen interglacial between.
ZONED BEAKER. A late Beaker pottery form which shows Corded influence in
ZYGOMATIC ARCH. The bony arch, formed of portions of the malar and temporal
bones, which encloses the temporal muscles and serves as the upper
attachment of the masseter.