Province of Troms
The population here is very heterogeneous. The base is unquestionably Norwegian. About 90% consider themselves Norwegian, 8% Lapps, and about 2% Finns. In the course of the generations however, Norwegians, Lapps and Finns have interbred. Racial purity is therefore hardly an issue here. Table 2 seems to indicate that the Norwegian element is in constant growth. This is, however, an illusion, since second- and third-generation bastards consider themselves Norwegian. And since the racial characters are not lost, this actually means that, with each passing year, the Norwegian race in the province of Troms becomes more polluted with foreign elements. Along the fjords, and on the isles of the province, there dwells a population commonly referred to as Sea-Finns. These constitute a rather large part of the present population. The origins of these Sea-Finns has yet to be revealed. Some consider them to be nothing but impoverished Mountain-Lapps. Others believe that these Sea-Finns are descended in part from an old an-Aryan population, having dwelt here since before the arrival of the Norwegians.
II. The bodily stature (M) is 169,287 cm. The standard deviation is 6,78. The variation coefficient is 4,004. The stature is very heterogeneous in the various counties. It is least in those districts where many Lapps or Sea-Finns reside (Lyngen and Karlsøy). It is greatest in those districts which have received many immigrants from the largest valleys of southern Norway - Østerdalen and Gudbrandsdalen. The curve for bodily stature is characterized by six well-defined peaks, and by a distribution which is significantly wider than what is normally seen in Norway.
III. Pigmentation. Blue-gray eyes are found at 58,5%, light-mixed at 19,9%, dark-mixed at 8,9%, and brown at 12,7%. Brown eyes correspond to Martin's tables 4 and 5. The greatest number of brown-eyed individuals is found in the Lyngen county (30,6%). The great incidence of brown eyes is the contribution of the Lapps and the so-called Sea-Finns. Mantegazza found the following values among real Mountain Lapps: 30% blue eyes, 40% mixed eyes, and 30% brown eyes. Consequently, the real Mountain Lapps are no more dark-eyed than the population of Lyngen. Since at least 50% of the Lyngen population is purely Nordic in origin, and therefore blue-eyed, it seems unlikely that the strong incidence of brown eyes in this population is a result of admixture of Mountain Lapps. The implication is that Sea-Finns are responsible for the extent of brown-eyed individuals in the Lyngen population, and that the Sea-Finns have therefore been more brown-eyed than the Lapps.
The greatest number of blue-eyed individuals is found in Bardu and Maalselv. The population consists largely of immigrants who arrived here about a hundred years ago from Østerdalen og Gudbrandsdalen. The eye colour in Bardu and Maalselv is nearly identical to the present means from northern Østerdalen. This is further evidence of the tenacity with which this trait is inherited.
The hair colour. Among all individuals examined, 23,4% were light blond, 1,5% red-haired, 34% light brown-haired, 33,9% dark brown-haired and 7,2% black-haired. Most instances of black hair correspond to Fischer's type 4. The districts with the greatest numbers of dark-haired individuals are also the ones with the greatest numbers of brown-eyed and small-statured individuals. It seems certain that it is the Sea-Finns who have contributed so many black-haired individuals to the population. If one compares the hair colour of the population of e.g. Lyngen with the findings of Mantegazza among the Mountain Lapps, one is convinced that the Lapps are not responsible for the dark hair colour of this population. There are fewer black-haired individuals among the Lapps than in this population.
IV. The Head. The average length for the entire group is 19,28 cm. It is 19,4 cm. for the Norwegians, 18,5 cm. for the Lapps. The average breadth is 15,41 cm, and 15,6 cm. for the Lapps.
The average value of the cephalic index is 80,77. The lowest indices are found in Bardu (79,3) and Maalselv (79,1). The curve for the cephalic index is characterized by a prominent peak at 80, as well as obvious peaks at 83 and 87. The latter peak is presumably attributable to the Lapps. The peak at 83 corresponds to the condition normally observed elsewhere in Norway, particularly in the west.
Table 20 outlines the relationship between the length and the breadth of the head, as well as the stature of Norwegians and Lapps. In Lapps, the head breadth amounts to about 15,6% of the stature, regardless of the size of the latter. In Norwegians, however, this relationship is merely 15,2%. In Lapps, the head length amounts to 18,0% - 18,4% of the stature, whereas in Norwegians this relationship is 19,0% - 19,3%. I found 6% dolichocephals, 47% mesocephals, 39% brachycephals, and 8% hyperbrachycephals.
V. The average facial height is 12,05, the average breadth 14,14. The morphological facial index is 85,1. The latter varies greatly between the different counties. The narrowest faces are found in Bardu and Maalselv, where one also finds the greatest stature, the lowest cephalic index, and the greatest number of light-haired and light-eyed individuals.
The broadest faces are found in Helgøy. This is rather conspicuous, as none of the individuals from Helgøy which I examined had Lappish origins, and it is indeed improbable that Lapps ever settled an island in the Arctic Ocean in such great numbers as to leave their imprint on the population. The present population must therefore have inherited its facial breadth from a racial type other than that of the Lapps. The curve for the (morphological) facial index is presented in Fig. 11, and it will be seen that it has three peaks: one at 83, another at 85, and a third at 88.
Out of the total provincial population, 37% were euryprosopes, 33% mesoprosopes, and 30% leptoprosopes.
The nasal index is 68,55. In the coastal districts of Helgøy, Torsken and Salangen the index is significantly greater, at about 73, which corresponds to the nasal index in the western Norwegian brachycephalic districts. Out of all the individuals examined, 57% were leptorrhine, 40% mesorrhine, and 3% chamaerrhine. Of the Lapps, 30% were leptorrhine, 63% mesorrhine, and 7% chamaerrhine.
The average interocular diameter was 32,96 mm.
VI. Plica marginalis was present in 12,8% (see Fig. 12). It is found in Norwegians as well as Lapps and Kvens, and in all the counties of the province. But as I will demonstrate later on, this character was introduced through admixture of Lapps.
The average value of the minimum frontal diameter is 11,09 cm.
The transverse frontoparietal index (see Table 29) is least among the Lapps and greatest among the Kvens. The relation between cephalic index and frontal diameter is revealed in Table 31.
Of all the individuals examined, 14% are stenometopic, 37,5% metriometopic, and 49,5% eurymetopic.
VII. Tables 33 - 37 illustrate the various combinations of hair colour and eye type. Table 34 shows that the lighter combinations, blue-gray eyes with blond and light brown hair, occurs most frequently in dolichocephals. The darkest combination (No. 8), brown eyes with black hair, occurs most frequently in brachycephals. If I add up all light and dark traits and attribute values in accordance with degrees of pigmentation, I find that the light bloc within this population amounts to 66%, the dark bloc 34%. If I repeat the procedure with reference to head type, I arrive at the following values for the light bloc: 68,7% of all dolichocephals, 70,3% of all mesocephals, 63,9% of all brachycephals, and 62,3% of all hyperbrachycephals.
VIII. Tests of affinity. These have been conducted according to the method of Andreas M. Hansen, since I consider this method preferable for determining the correlation coefficient when using Bravais's formula.
The affinity value is the relation between the actual percentage of the individuals examined in whom the two characters are found in combination, and that which is obtained by probability, when the two characters vary independently of one another. A high affinity value, therefore, normally implies a biological connection, whereas a low affinity value speaks against such a connection. The results of these investigations are found in Tables 38 to 43.
From these investigations, the following is revealed:
1. That within
our population there exists a large mesocephalic bloc, leptoprosopic, tall, eurymetopic,
with a great jugofrontal index, leptorrhine, blond and blue-eyed,
IX. The creation of a population mosaic through the combination of various traits. I shall presently describe the manner in which the six most important traits are combined, which will require a reduction of the number of types per each trait. Supposing that there are four head types, three face types, two nose types, two eye types, two hair types and two types of stature, the number of possible combinations is 192. Of these 192 conceivable combinations, however, many are never instanced, or so rarely instanced that they may immediately be removed from consideration. On the other hand, certain lines attract so many individuals that they can be clearly designated, and it is these lines that give the population its cast, so to speak. For dolichocephals, the most conspicuous line is: dolichocephaly - leptoprosopy - leptorrhiny - light eyes - light hair.
Mesocephaly adheres to precisely the same line, namely: mesocephaly - leptoprosopy - leptorrhiny - light eyes - light hair, and it is safe to say that this line terminates in great stature. Since this is the only line for dolichocephals which is salient and consistent, and characterized by high affinity values, there is no reason to suppose that the dolichocephals within this population represent a particular type. The dolichocephals merely constitute a purer line, they ÷diverge from the greater dolicho-mesocephalic group. Nor are there any observable differences between leptoprosopes and mesoprosopes. The leptoprosopes are seen to ÷diverge from the greater lepto-mesoprosopic group. I therefore believe that these tables support the idea that our population contains a large dolicho-mesocephalic group with the following features: lepto-mesoprosopy - leptorrhiny - light eyes - light hair - great stature. I will refer to this type as homo nordicus.
The brachycephals are found in Table 46. This table shows that there exists a biological opposition between leptoprosopy and brachycephaly, while there can be no doubt as to the strong biological connection between brachycephaly and meso-euryprosopy. If one proceeds along this line, one will become aware of a biologically continuous series running through meso-euryprosopy - mesorrhiny - dark eyes - dark hair, and small stature. A series of traits characteristic of homo alpinus, therefore, are also to be found here.
The hyperbrachycephals are found in Table 47. At the foot of this table one finds a biologically continuous line, characterized by high affinity values, passing through euryprosopy - mesorrhiny - dark eyes - dark hair, and small stature. These features are immediately recognizable as characteristic of the type which Giuffrida-Ruggeri termed palaeoarctic, and which includes Samoyeds and Lapps. I will refer to this type as homo palaeoarcticus. It was found in 6,8% of hyperbrachycephals = 0,75% of the entire group. Table 47 demonstrates that the most conspicuous line passes through hyperbrachycephaly - euryprosopy - mesorrhiny - light eyes - light hair, and small stature. This line also has high affinity values, and the traits correspond precisely to the current means for the Lapps. Anthropologically, this bastard, No. 185, is distinguished as a bastard of the first degree of homo palaeoarcticus and homo nordicus. Nos. 186-189 may also be subsumed in this category. I will be referring to these bastards as homo lapponicus. Nos. 177-184 may be classed as bastards of the second degree of homo nordicus and homo palaeoarcticus. These are leptorrhine; the characteristic Lapp features are strongly diluted in this group, which is also numerically small. Nos. 161-176 are bastards of the third degree. In this group, the Norwegian element predominates. They retain only their head form from homo palaeoarcticus. It should also be noted that within this group tall stature predominates, whereas bastards of first and second degrees are predominantly small-statured. As regards facial form, this entire group must be considered as ÷divergent from the Nordic race. Leptoprosopy does not correlate well with hyperbrachycephaly. This combination occurs in only thirteen of the individuals examined.
The bastards of the brachycephals are found in Table 48. The original features of the ancestral brachycephalic type were found in combination in only ten individuals (type no. 127) = 4,3%. The original features of the ancestral dolichocephalic type were found in combination in only 24%. These calculations were made with reference to the percentages of either type within the present population. It is evident that the brachycephalic bloc has been subjected to external influences and internal fragmentation quite distinct from the dolichocephalic bloc. This is possibly due to the fact that the Nordic element has at all times conceived of itself as superior. The brachycephalic element has therefore entered the Nordic element in a dropwise manner, so to speak. This has been going on for several generations, and the foreign element has become gradually more ignored, so that the better elements of the Nordic race have come to be blended with the foreign element. This is the reason for the fragmented nature of the brachycephalic element, whereas the Nordic element has remained more intact. There is a second conceivable explanation, to which I will return in a later section.
In this section I have tested the possibility that ascertainable types exist which give the population its cast. I have so far dealt with six of the most characteristic traits of the human races. Each of these traits is likely dependent on more than one pair of factors. As ten pairs of factors yield 1,048,576 possible combinations, one would think that within a population as heterogeneous as this one, souch a large number of combinations would be disclosed that it would be impossible to establish order from out the chaos. It is of great significance that a number of main lines stand out clearly. The connection may be that each of the linnean species comprises many distinct genotypes, which in composition could be a more or less stable grouping of the species' genes. A great number of theoretically possible genotypes are probably ill-suited for life, and perish at an early stage in the struggle for survival. The characteristic and rather uniform appearance of the linnean species probably results from the fact that many of the possible crossbred varieties are constantly being subjugated in the struggle for survival.
Table 49 reviews the varieties which are particularly characteristic of the population under scrutiny. The bold lines indicate the traits of the ancestral types, while the thin lines indicate the traits of the hybrid varieties.
X. In this section, a further simplification of the population mosaic is attempted, in that here only three traits are considered: 1. cephalic index, 2. morphological facial index, 3. eye colour. I believe that one may in this manner obtain a very precise and valuable portrait of the anthropological composition of a population.
present population, I have identified the following twelve groups (see Fig. 13.):
Taxonometric investigations have led me to conclude that the population under scrutiny originated in the intermixture of three ancestral types: a Nordic, an Alpine and a Lappoid, in the proportions 66:30:4. These numbers are naturally not mathematically accurate. I have reviewed the distribution of today's living bastards in Section X.
How well does this distribution of bastards correspond to the expected outcome of crossbreeding between the ancestral types in accordance with the proportions which I have suggested? The outcome will naturally depend on the relative dominance and recessivity of the various traits.
If two pure races are crossbred, then all recessive traits will naturally be lost in the F1 generation, unless the two crossbred groups are precisely the same size. In the F2 generation they will re-emerge, but in lesser numbers than before the crossbreeding, and at the same time the dominant traits will have increased correspondingly. With continued crossbreeding (panmixia), the relationships of the F2 generation will remain unchanged. If one bloc was initially larger than the other, this will naturally result in a greater retention of the former's characteristic traits in the F2 generation. This will also be the case in later generations. Here we have an excellent means of expanding our understanding of the racial origins of human societies.
I have so far calculated, in a series of tables, the consequences of the panmictic crossbreeding of the three presumed ancestral types. The results are found in Table 55, in which hyperbrachycephaly dominates brachycephaly and dolicho-mesocephaly, brachycephaly dominates dolicho-mesocephaly, euryprosopy dominates lepto-mesoprosopy, and brown eyes dominate light eyes. The results are outlined in row 10, and row 11 reveals the number of registered cases of each of these varieties, as discovered by me. It will become immediately clear that, according to these laws, the crossbreeding cannot have occurred.
Subsequently, I have examined all remaining possibilities, until finally arriving at the following conclusions:
1. The examined population originated from the crossbreeding of three distinct ancestral types, in the proportions which I have suggested.
2. The crossbreeding occurred largely in accordance with the Mendelian laws, so that hyperbrachycephaly dominates brachycephaly and dolicho-mesocephaly, brachycephaly dominates dolicho-mesocephaly, and leptoprosopy dominates euryprosopi. Brown and dark-mixed eyes do not completely dominate blue-gray eyes, since the heterozygotes have eyes of intermediate colour. Under these conditions, the result of the crossbreeding will equal that which is illustrated in Fig. 15a. The results of my investigation is now identical to that which is illustrated in Fig. 15b. They disagree, as we shall see, only insignificantly, and the discrepancies are largely restricted to the hyperbrachycephalic group.
XII. The alien elements are comprised of Lapps and Kvens. The present investigation cannot make statements as to the stature of Norwegian Lapps, as all small-statured Lappish recruits are annulled as unfit for service. It is worth noting that none of the Lapps examined by me were taller than 171 cm. These Lapps certainly give the impression of being bastards; they have received the hair and eye colour of the Nordic race, yet none have adopted its average stature. This speaks against the notion that great stature dominates small stature in crossbreeding. In most cases the mother was a Lapp, and the small stature of these Lapp bastards indicates that the female proportion has a dominant status at least in relation to this feature.
The breadth of the head was 15,63 cm., and the length was 18,54 cm. The breadth amounts to 9,5%, and the length to 11,8%, of the stature. The auricular height is 12,56 cm. The capacity of the Lapp cranium is accordingly 1444 cm³.
The cephalic index was 84,29. The facial index was 82,98. The nasal index was 73,9. The hair colour is reviewed in Table 62. The eyes were blue-gray in 30%, mixed in 50%, and brown in 20%. A characteristic of the Lapps is the small breadth of the forehead. Of the Norwegians, 14% were stenometopic, 37,5% metriometopic and 49,5% eurymetopic. Of the Lapps, however, 50% were stenometopic, 20% metriometopic, and 30% eurymetopic. If one compares my mean values and series with those of Mantegazza, it becomes evident that even these most purely Norwegian Lapps are strongly mixed with foreign elements.
The stature of the Kvens (M) was 166,2 cm. Their cephalic index was 82,06. The auricular height was 13,06 cm. The cranial capacity must therefore have been 1432 cm³. Their facial index was 84,29 cm. The face is relatively square-shaped, due to the great breadth of the jaw. The nasal index was 67,35. They are very light-pigmented in both hair and eyes, but do not by far approach the Norwegian population in this respect. Light eyes were found in 65%, dark eyes in 35%, light hair in 53%, and dark hair in 47%.
XIII. In this section I will present a concise outline of the anthropology of the individual counties.
Quickly summarized, the population under scrutiny is tall (169,3 cm.), sub-brachycephalic (c. i. 80,7), mesoprosopic (f. i. 85,1), leptorrhine (68,5), light-eyed, and light-haired.
The coastal and insular population is similar to the so-called western Norwegian population, as known from Jæderen and Søndmør.
The agricultural and inland population of e.g. Bardu and Maalselv is in most respects similar to the inland population of southern Norway (Østerdalen). Foreign elements (such as Lapps and Kvens) are so scarce that they do not affect the cast of the population.